TestNG vs JUnit: Performance, Ease of Use, and Flexibility Compared

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Pranshu Srivastava
Table of Contents

It’d be ideal if the software worked perfectly right from the start, but in reality, achieving such perfection demands thorough testing. This is where frameworks like TestNG and JUnit play a crucial, yet often underappreciated, role.

They are among the most popular tools in the Java ecosystem, each with its unique approach to tackling the challenges of software testing. There's often a choice between TestNG's advanced, feature-rich environment and JUnit's simple, no-frills approach for developers.

This comparison is more than just a technical debate; it's about finding the right tool that aligns with the project's complexity and the team's workflow. We’ll shed light on this choice, guiding both developers and curious minds through the intricacies of TestNG and JUnit.

What is TestNG?

TestNG is a testing framework for Java that makes testing through its simple and helpful tools for writing and managing tests. It uses easy-to-use annotations to allow for simpler coding and better organization of tests.

The name TestNG refers to its innovative, new testing features beyond Java testing tools.

A key advantage is its ability to group test cases, improving management and readability, especially in complex suites.

It also offers flexible test configurations and data-driven testing with the @DataProvider annotation. With its powerful execution model and compatibility with various tools and plugins, TestNG makes a versatile choice for diverse tests scenarios.

Features of TestNG

TestNG testing framework offers a range of features that are suited to various testing needs. Here are some of its key features:

  • Annotations

To define test methods and their behaviour, TestNG uses annotations such as @Test, @BeforeClass, and @AfterClass. These annotations provide a clear structure to the test code, making it easier to read and maintain.

  • Grouping of Tests

It allows the grouping of test methods into named groups. This feature is useful for organizing tests, especially when dealing with large test suites, enabling selective test execution and better management.

  • Parallel Execution

Running tests in parallel with TestNG can significantly reduce the time it takes for the entire test suite to run. It’s particularly beneficial in large projects where tests need to be run frequently.

  • Data-Driven Testing

With the @DataProvider annotation, TestNG supports data-driven testing. This allows for running a test method multiple times with different data sets, improving the test coverage.

  • Flexible Test Configuration

Flexible test configuration options are provided by TestNG, including the ability to specify test parameters in XML files. This flexibility allows for more dynamic and adaptable test setups.

  • Support for Dependent Methods

In TestNG, dependencies can be specified between test methods. If a method depends on another, it will only run after the dependent method has successfully executed.

  • Integration with Various Tools

TestNG integrates well with popular development tools and environments, such as Eclipse, Maven, and IntelliJ IDEA, making it a versatile choice for developers.


  • Streamlines test code organization

  • Simplifies large-scale test handling

  • Reduces overall testing time

  • Enables flexible test customization

  • Ensures orderly test execution

  • Facilitates easy tool compatibility


  • The steeper learning curve for beginners.

  • Less prevalent than JUnit in some development communities.

What is JUnit?

JUnit is a basic testing framework for Java that’s very important for test-driven development. Originally based on SUnit, JUnit has become the standard way Java developers write and run tests.

A major benefit of JUnit is that it is simple and easy to use. It has annotations, which are labels that let you easily mark test methods and group tests into suites. This simplifies testing for Java developers. Overall, JUnit's simple format for writing and managing tests makes the testing process smoother.

The evolution of JUnit, especially with the release of JUnit 5, has kept pace with the advancements in modern Java. It is designed to support Java 8 and newer versions, ensuring compatibility with the latest features of the Java language.

Known for its simplicity, JUnit makes it easy to write small, repeatable tests for individual units of code. This makes it an essential tool for Java developers to ensure code quality and reliability.

Features of JUnit

JUnit offers several key features that facilitate effective unit testing —

  • Annotations for Test Identification

JUnit uses annotations like @Test, @BeforeEach, and @AfterEach to identify and manage test methods. This makes the code more readable and easier to organize.

  • Assertion Mechanisms

It provides a rich set of assertion methods to validate test conditions, essential for verifying the expected outcomes of tests.

  • Test Runners

JUnit includes test runners which are used to execute test cases. These runners provide feedback on the test results, making it easier to identify and fix issues.

  • Test Suites

The framework allows the grouping of multiple test cases into test suites, enabling organized, extensive testing of larger code bases.

  • Parameterized Tests

JUnit supports parameterized tests, allowing the same test to be run multiple times with different inputs, enhancing the test coverage.

  • Assumptions

Assumptions in JUnit provide a way to write conditional tests, where a test is only executed if certain conditions are met.

  • Nested Testing

JUnit 5 introduced the ability to write nested test classes, allowing for a more structured and hierarchical organization of tests.


  • Comprehensive validation capabilities

  • Quick feedback from test execution

  • Efficient large-scale test management

  • Improved test coverage with parameterization

  • Conditional testing for context-specific cases

  • Structured testing with nested classes


  • Limited support for parallel test execution.

  • Less flexible than some newer frameworks.

TestNG vs JUnit: Key Comparison Table

Let’s take a quick look at the table, comparing the TestNG testing framework with JUnit.

Features TestNG JUnit
Framework Nature Java-based testing framework Open-source Java unit testing framework
Annotation Simplicity More intuitive annotations Annotations are relatively more complex
Simultaneous Test Execution Supports parallel testing Lacks parallel testing capability
Test Organization Permits grouping of tests Grouping tests isn't possible
Setup or Teardown Annotations Specific annotations for setup and teardown types General annotations for setup and teardown
Handling Exceptions in Tests Uses @Test(expectedExceptions = ...) Uses @Test(expected = ...)
Test Time Limits Implements @Test(timeout = ...) Applies @Test(timeout = ...)
Execution of Test Suites Operates test suites via XML files Employs @RunWith and @Suite for test suites
Excluding Tests from Execution Employs @Test(enabled = false) Utilizes @Ignore for skipping tests
Test Reports Generation Automatically creates HTML and Index reports Requires plugins for report generation

TestNG vs JUnit: In-depth Key Differences

Now that we understand the frameworks, let’s break down the details for a deeper insight and comparison of TestNG vs JUnit.

1. Framework

JUnit is a unit-testing framework in the Java ecosystem, primarily designed for unit testing. It's simple and flexible, making it ideal for developers focusing on testing individual components.

TestNG, on the other hand, is inspired by JUnit but extends its capabilities. It's suitable for all kinds of testing, including unit, functional, and end-to-end testing. TestNG's broader scope makes it a better choice for integrated testing scenarios.

2. User Interface

In terms of User Interface, both JUnit and TestNG do not have a dedicated UI for test execution or result visualization. They are typically used with IDEs like Eclipse or IntelliJ IDEA, which provide plugins or built-in support for these frameworks.

The difference lies in how results are presented in these IDEs, with TestNG offering more detailed and organized views, especially for larger test suites.

3. Annotations

Annotations in JUnit are straightforward and focused on basic testing needs. For example, @Before, @After, @Test, etc., are commonly used. TestNG, however, offers a wider range of annotations like @BeforeSuite, @AfterSuite, @BeforeGroup, and @AfterGroup.

That way TestNG provides more flexibility and control over test execution, especially in complex scenarios involving multiple test suites and groups.

4. Writing Tests

When it comes to Writing Tests, JUnit is generally simpler and more intuitive, especially for beginners or for basic unit tests. Its extended features make TestNG the best choice for advanced users, including those who need to handle dependency testing, parameterized testing, or group testing.

TestNG's flexibility allows for more sophisticated test case structures.

5. Suite Test

Suite Test execution in JUnit is limited compared to TestNG. JUnit allows the grouping of test cases, but it's not as extensive or flexible as TestNG.

The following class illustrates how to utilize the suite when applying JUnit4:

package guru99.JUnit;

import org.JUnit.runner.RunWith;
import org.JUnit.runners.Suite;


public class JUnitTest {
// This class remains empty,it is used only as a holder for the above annotations

TestNG excels in this area with its ability to create complex test suites using XML files, allowing for detailed organization and execution of tests.

<!DOCTYPE suite SYSTEM "http://beust.com/TestNG/TestNG-1.0.dtd" >

<suite name="My test suite">
<test name="testing">
<class name="com.guru99.SuiteTest1" />

<class name="com.guru99.SuiteTest2" />

This feature is particularly useful in large projects with multiple modules and varied testing requirements.

6. Test Setup

JUnit provides a simple and straightforward approach to test setup with annotations like @Before, @After, @BeforeClass, and @AfterClass. These annotations help in executing specific code before and after each test or test class.

public class SummationServiceTest {

    private static List<Integer> numbers;
    public static void initialize() {
        numbers = new ArrayList<>();
    public static void tearDown() {
        numbers = null;
    public void runBeforeEachTest() {
    public void runAfterEachTest() {
    public void givenNumbers_sumEquals_thenCorrect() {
        int sum = numbers.stream().reduce(0, Integer::sum);
        assertEquals(6, sum);

TestNG extends this concept with additional annotations like @BeforeSuite, @AfterSuite, @BeforeGroups, and @AfterGroups, offering more granularity in test setup. They’re especially useful in complex scenarios involving multiple groups and suites.

public void runBeforeEachGroup() {

public void runAfterEachGroup() {

For class-level operations, TestNG uses @BeforeClass and @AfterClass annotations. In contrast, method-level setup and cleanup are managed through @BeforeMethod and @AfterMethod annotations.

public void initialize() {
    numbers = new ArrayList<>();

public void tearDown() {
    numbers = null;

public void runBeforeEachTest() {

public void runAfterEachTest() {

Additionally, in TestNG, if you need to set up or clean up configurations before or after the test cases in the <test> tag of the TestNG XML file, you can use the @BeforeTest and @AfterTest annotations.

<test name="test setup">
        <class name="SummationServiceTest">
                <include name="givenNumbers_sumEquals_thenCorrect" />

It's important to note that in JUnit, methods annotated with @BeforeClass and @AfterClass must be static. However, TestNG does not have this requirement for its methods.

7. Ignore Test

To Ignore Tests, JUnit uses the @Ignore annotation, which is straightforward and easy to use. Simply annotating a test method with @Ignore will prevent it from being executed.



public void givenNumbers_sumEquals_thenCorrect() {

int sum = numbers.stream().reduce(0, Integer::sum);

Assert.assertEquals(6, sum);


TestNG, however, uses the enabled attribute within the @Test annotation (@Test(enabled = false)) to skip tests. This approach provides more flexibility, allowing the enable/disable status to be dynamically controlled.

public void givenNumbers_sumEquals_thenCorrect() {
    int sum = numbers.stream.reduce(0, Integer::sum);
    Assert.assertEquals(6, sum);

8. Exception Test

For Exception Testing, JUnit uses the assertThrows method in JUnit 5 or the expected attribute in the @Test annotation in JUnit 4. This allows specifying the expected exception for a test method.

TestNG handles this with the expectedExceptions attribute in the @Test annotation, which is similar in functionality, allowing tests to specify which exception they expect to be thrown.

void testExpectedException() {
    Assertions.assertThrows(NumberFormatException.class, () -> {
        Integer.parseInt("Hello World"); //would fail since input is not a valid number

9. Timeout

Timeouts in tests are supported by both frameworks. JUnit allows specifying a timeout duration with the timeout attribute in the @Test annotation or using assertTimeout in JUnit 5. TestNG also provides a timeout attribute in the @Test annotation.

This feature ensures that tests fail if they take longer than the specified duration, useful for detecting performance issues.


public void givenExecution_takeMoreTime_thenFail() throws InterruptedException {

Assertions.assertTimeout(Duration.ofMillis(1000), () -> Thread.sleep(10000));


We can run the identical test in TestNG and JUnit 4 by using @Test(timeout=1000).

@Test(timeOut = 1000)

public void givenExecution_takeMoreTime_thenFail() {

while (true);


10. Dependency Tests

Dependency Tests are a unique feature of TestNG, where tests can depend on the successful execution of other tests. Using the dependsOnMethods attribute in the @Test annotation, TestNG can skip subsequent tests if their dependencies fail, avoiding unnecessary execution.


public void givenEmail_ifValid_thenTrue() {

boolean valid = email.contains("@");

Assert.assertEquals(valid, true);


@Test(dependsOnMethods = {"givenEmail_ifValid_thenTrue"})

public void givenValidEmail_whenLoggedIn_thenTrue() {

LOGGER.info("Email {} valid >> logging in", email);


JUnit does not natively support this feature, making TestNG more suitable for complex test scenarios where test execution order and dependency are critical.

11. Grouping Tests

JUnit does not inherently support grouping tests, which can limit its use in complex scenarios. However, it allows organizing tests into suites using annotations.

TestNG excels in this aspect, offering extensive support for grouping tests. This feature is particularly useful for categorizing tests based on functionality, modules, or other criteria, enhancing the manageability of large test suites.

12. Parameterized Test

Both frameworks support Parameterized Tests, but they approach it differently. JUnit4 uses the @RunWith and @Parameters annotations, providing a straightforward way to execute the same test with different data sets.

@RunWith(value = Parameterized.class)

public class JUnitTest{

privateint number;

public JUnitTest6(int number)


this.number = number;



public static Collection<Object[]> data()


Object[][] data = new Object[][] { { 1 }, { 2 }, { 3 }, { 4 } };




public void parameterTest()


System.out.println("Parameterized Number is : " + number);



TestNG uses the @DataProvider annotation or XML files for parameterization, offering more flexibility in defining and managing test data.

public class Test1 {



public void parameterTest(int number)


System.out.println("Parameterized Number is : " + number);



See the XML file which contains the aforementioned class:

<!DOCTYPE suite SYSTEM "http://beust.com/TestNG/TestNG-1.0.dtd" >

<suite name="My test suite">

<test name="testing">

<parameter name="number" value="2"/>


<class name="com.guru99.Test1" />




13. Order of Test Execution

JUnit generally executes tests in the order they are written or in an unpredictable order, depending on the version. It doesn't natively support specifying the execution order.

TestNG, however, allows defining the order of test execution using the priority attribute in the @Test annotation, giving more control over the test flow.

14. Custom Test Name

In JUnit, custom test names can be set using the @DisplayName annotation in JUnit 5, allowing for more descriptive test names.

TestNG allows customizing test names through the name attribute in the @Test annotation, which can make test reports more readable and manageable.

15. Reporting

TestNG is known for its superior reporting capabilities, providing detailed reports out of the box. These reports are more comprehensive and include various details about the test execution.

JUnit, while it does provide basic reporting, is generally less detailed compared to TestNG and often requires additional tools or libraries for enhanced reporting.

16. Community & Support

JUnit has a large and active community, partly due to its longer presence in the industry. It has extensive documentation and a vast number of resources available online. TestNG also has a strong community, though it may not be as large as JUnit's.

Both frameworks are well-supported with regular updates and community contributions.

The Best Alternative: The Other Side of the Coin

In software testing, tools like JUnit and TestNG have been popular for a long time. But now, things are changing because of new technologies like genAI. This change is leading to new ways of using testing tools and making testing more modern.

Think about how easy it would be if you could generate test scripts directly, instead of writing the usual test cases. This isn't just an idea; there are new tools that can do this. One of the best is Keploy.

It's a tool that anyone can use for free. What makes Keploy special is how it turns the activity of users into test cases and data stubs. It’s a bit like what TestNG and JUnit do, but Keploy does it in a new and different way.

Keploy is great with automatically capturing API network calls for test generation and mock generation, areas where JUnit and TestNG have traditionally excelled. In contrast to conventional frameworks, it addresses manual testing and dependency mock management challenges.

Efficient in generating tests and stubs, reducing test duplication, and integrating seamlessly, Keploy is a hybrid solution. With Keploy, developers don't have to write test cases manually in JUnit and TestNG and can generate them using Keploy, making it a comprehensive testing tool combo.

An option worth considering is Keploy, an all-in-one testing solution that combines JUnit and TestNG.


It’s an open source platform allowing you to use it for free. Also, we’ll be launching an Enterprise version, which will have extra features like:

  • Automated test-generation from OpenAPI schema

  • Direct recording from production traffic

  • Mocking streaming services

  • Automatic de-duplication of test cases

  • 24x7 support

So, please stand by for this.

Comparison Table of JUnit vs TestNG vs Keploy

Now let's learn about JUnit, TestNG, and Keploy's testing differences -

Features Keploy JUnit TestNG
Automated Testing Scenarios Offers automated testing scenarios and network call captures. Primarily focused on unit testing with limited automation. Supports a wide range of automated testing, including unit and functional tests.
Test Case Generation Converts user-traffic into test cases and data stubs. Requires manual creation of test cases. Supports automated generation of test case but less focused on user-traffic conversion.
Network Interaction Capture Captures network interactions for testing. Does not inherently capture network interactions. Does not inherently capture network interactions.
Debugging and Testing Process Streamlines debugging and testing processes. Offers debugging support but less streamlined. Provides advanced testing and debugging features.
Security and Administrative Features Offers security and administrative features for teams. Limited in terms of security and administrative features. Offers some level of security features but less focus on administrative aspects.
Reproducing Production Issues Can reproduce production issues locally for testing and debugging. Limited capability in reproducing production issues. Can reproduce certain production issues but not as focused as Keploy.
Integration with Backend Applications Popularly used for Java, Golang, Node, and Python. Supports other backend applications. Limited to Java applications and frameworks. More flexible than JUnit but still has limitations compared to Keploy.
Test Coverage Gives high test coverage in combination with Junit and TestNG. Good for unit test coverage but may require additional tools for broader coverage. Offers extensive test coverage, including unit and

TestNG vs JUnit vs Keploy: Which One Should You Use?

When it comes to choosing between TestNG, JUnit, and Keploy for your Java testing needs, there's no one-size-fits-all answer. Each of these frameworks has its unique strengths and use cases, making them suitable for different scenarios.

TestNG is a powerful testing framework designed to cover a broader range of test categories: unit, functional, end-to-end, integration, etc. Advantages of TestNG over JUnit in situations where you need sophisticated features like grouping, sequencing, and parameterizing tests.

If you're working on large-scale projects with complex testing needs, TestNG is a powerful choice. Its ability to handle dependent tests and provide flexible test configurations makes it ideal for advanced users.

JUnit, on the other hand, is the go-to framework for straightforward unit testing in the Java ecosystem. It's particularly user-friendly for beginners and is widely adopted in the industry.

If your primary focus is on unit testing with simplicity and ease of use, JUnit is a reliable option. It's less feature-rich compared to TestNG but excels in its simplicity and direct approach to testing.

Keploy, a relatively new player in the field, combines the best of both worlds. It offers a range of features that cater to both unit and integration as more comprehensive testing scenarios.

It's important to note that Keploy offers the capability to run your JUnit tests with Keploy tests so that you don’t need to write duplicate test cases. Thus, testing becomes more efficient and in-depth due to this feature. With Keploy, you can combine the strengths of both TestNG and JUnit to create a modern, versatile testing tool.

It's particularly appealing if you're interested in adopting the latest technologies and methodologies in software testing.

Ultimately, your choice depends on your specific needs —

  • If you need advanced features and are dealing with complex testing scenarios, TestNG is your go-to.

  • For straightforward unit testing with ease of use, JUnit is ideal.

  • And if you're looking to experiment with a modern tool that offers a blend of both unit and integration testing, give Keploy a try.

Remember, the best tool is the one that aligns with your project requirements and testing strategies.


When comparing TestNG vs JUnit, we see that each has its own strong points and uses. For complex setups, TestNG allows flexible configurations, can handle tests that depend on each other, and can run multiple tests at once and test with different data sets.

JUnit, however, is better for simpler tasks. Test markers make it easy to identify tests, test results are easy to check, and tests within tests can be handled. If you're trying to pick between the two, think about what your project really needs.

You can run several tests together, organize tests into groups, or use a wide variety of markers with TestNG. It's especially useful for big, complicated projects. But if you want something straightforward and easy, especially for smaller or less complex projects, JUnit is a better fit.

To sum up, TestNG and JUnit each have their own advantages. For those among you eager to expand your horizons beyond these traditional frameworks, we suggest taking a closer look at Keploy. Explore Keploy and see what it can do for your software testing.

Frequently Asked Questions

Can JUnit be used for data-driven testing like TestNG?

While JUnit can be used for data-driven testing, TestNG is generally more powerful in this aspect. Data-driven testing is more robust and flexible with TestNG than with JUnit, making it the best choice for tests that require running multiple times with different data.

How does the learning curve compare between TestNG and JUnit?

JUnit typically has a gentler learning curve due to its simplicity and straightforward approach to testing. Those new to testing frameworks might find TestNG's advanced features and capabilities challenging to learn

Are there any specific scenarios where JUnit is preferred over TestNG?

JUnit is often preferred for smaller or less complex projects where simplicity and ease of use are key. With its straightforward approach, it is ideal for projects without the advanced features offered by TestNG, such as parallel execution.


  • pranshu

    I am currently pursuing my BTech in Electronics And Communications Engineering from Maharaja Agrasen Institute of Technology. My interest in software engineering stems from my interests in technology and smartphones as a kid. I'm currently exploring Golang and open source softwares at my current organisation. You can check out my work here: https://github.com/PranshuSrivastava. I am looking forward to working with organisations that are making a difference with their products/services and connecting with talented developers working in this field. Let's connect!


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